Factors that stimulate your prompt for weight loss:
- Belt buckles moves down a notch or two
- A favorite pair of jeans suddenly unzippable, and must shoved into a drawer
- Diagnosis of prediabetes
- Sleep apnea
- Soaring blood pressure resistant to antihypertensive medications
- … …
Ways for weight loss:
- Meal plan and exercise regimen (Diet planning is the focus on this post, because eating is necessary, but exercise can be a choice)
- Diet pills/ laxatives/ diuretics/ starve and purge
- Impulsive change without a plan
A few facts about “weight” in American:
- Americans spend more than $46 billion a year on weight-reduction programs, but obesity rates remain rise.
- Medicare and Medicaid fund approximately half of the $75 billion attributed to obesity-related health problems.
- Modest weight decreases have been shown to decrease plasma lipid levels and hypertension
- Losing 10% of one’s body weight can reduce lifetime medical costs by up to $5,300
3 Physiologic mechanisms implicates weight gain:
- increased energy intake
- decreased energy expenditure
- increased energy storage
Thus, weight loss occurs: when caloric intake is lower than expenditure.
***To lose 1 lb. a week, one would have to restrict 500 kcal per day***
- although some restrict calories even more, the typical very-low-calorie diet allows approximately 800 calories per day
- for extremely obese patients under the supervision of a physician***
- prepared formulas replace daily meals for a period of up to several months
- designed to bring about more rapid weight loss than can be achieved with conventional low-calorie diets
- substantial loss usually occurs in the first few weeks
- allow approximately 1,000 to 1,200 kcal a day
- commercial plans: prepackaged meals (such as Jenny Craig, NutriSystem, and Weight Watchers)
- considered safer than very-low-calorie regimens, and better long-term results
- can reduce total body weight by an average of 8% over 3 to 12 months.
- restrict intake of fats to between 20% and 30% of the daily calories consumed
- an essential nutrient, fats contain 9 kcal per gram (compared with 4 kcal per gram for both proteins and carbohydrates)
- ***Fat matters, but calories count*** Thus, a low-fat diet that doesn’t include a reduction in overall caloric intake won’t promote weight loss, the body will store carbohydrates as fat.
- Fact: many “fat-free” products have more calories than the foods they are designed to replace.
- fat constitutes as 15% of calories consumed
- contain a higher proportion of complex carbohydrates
- if people replace fat calories with fruits and vegetables that are high in fiber and low in calories, they will consume fewer calories and lose weight.
- American Heart Association Science Advisory states that very-low-fat diets are not appropriate for young children, the elderly, pregnant women, or people with eating disorders and that people “with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, elevated triglyceride levels, and carbohydrate malabsorption illnessed should also avoid such a diet. ***
Moderate-Fat, Low Calorie Diets – Also called Mediterranean Style Diet:
- allow up to 35% of calories from fats and limit carbohydrates and proteins
- incorporate essential omega-3 fatty acids
- result showed an average weight loss of 4.1 kg in those following the Mediterranean-style diet (30-month period)
- better long-term participation and adherence
- Study shown to have a 50% to 70% lower risk of recurrent heart disease ***
Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein Diets:
- allow only 20g to 90g of carbohydrates per day, protein and fat are unrestricted
- When carbohydrate intake is minimized, glycogen stores and fats are used as energy sources, altering the body’s metabolism and causing an initial loss of weight from ketosis and diuresis.
- by restricting carbohydrates, these diets eliminate many nutrient sources
- supplemental vitamins, minerals, and fiber may be required
- Most famous book – Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution (1972)
- Studies suggested that low-carbohydrate diet was associated with improvements in coronary heart disease risk factors: increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and decreased triglyceride levels. However more studies are needed.
- ***Adverse Effects***
- vitamin deficiencies
- altered cognitive function (a complication of ketosis)
- increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels
- increases in the glomerular filtration rate
- long term effects can include nephrolithiasis (renal stones), osteoporosis, and progression of chronic renal insufficiency
Several Types of Diet Plans Produce at least Short-Term Weight Loss, however, Portion Size may Matter more than What We Eat!
A few more facts about “weight” in American:
- in 2002 Young and Nestle found that the average portion of a single serving of cooked pasta was 480% greater than the recommended serving size.
- Cookies were 700% larger
Resource retrieved from www.nursingcenter.com
Baker, B. (2016) Weigh loss and diet plans