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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) 糖尿病 (Reading & Sharing Part 2)

The main source of energy in your body cells that make up muscles and other tissue is Glucose, a sugar.

  • Glucose is derived from foods you ingest and is stored in your liver as glycogen.
  • Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and with the assistance of insulin, enters cells
  • Your liver also makes glucose
  • To keep your glucose levels within normal range, your liver will break down glycogen to glucose and send it into the bloodstream.  This might occur if you haven’t eaten for a while, for instance, overnight.

This process in the normal way in which your body maintains a normal blood sugar level (Mayo Clinic, 2018)

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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) 糖尿病 (Reading & Sharing Part 1)

Diabetic mellitus (DM) is an endocrine condition that involves the inability of the body to regulate glucose in the system consequently affecting the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein. The table below shows interesting facts about the different types of DM for clarification. (Braun et al 2017, & Klandorf et al 2013). DM Type 2 will be the focus of this entire discussion.

DM Classification (Types) Lifespan Onset Etiology (Cause)
Insulin Dependent DM (Type 1) Childhood – Puberty. Peak= 10-14yrs old, increases in adulthood Insulin Deficit due to inability to produce insulin
Non-Insulin Dependent DM (Type 2) Adulthood with Peak period at 45 years old and increasing under 45 years old Insulin resistance or impaired inability of the tissue to use insulin in response to the body’s needs.
Gestational DM Pregnancy and peaks at the 5th or 6th month gestation. Inability to make additional Insulin that is needed during pregnancy.

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Ganglion Cyst 神经节囊肿 (Reading & Sharing)

A ganglion cyst is a common soft tissue swelling often found in the hand and wrist. It is a cyst filled with viscous, sticky, and mucinous fluid that can be single or multiloculated. They are benign lesions, they may lead to pain, weakness, and loss of function, and may require treatment. They are masses located on the dorsal or volar aspect of the wrist or surrounding structures (Blazar, 2017).

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Asthma 哮喘 (Reading & Sharing)

Asthma is a chronic reactive airway disorder that is a long term pulmonary disease with airflow resistance causing episodic airway obstruction from bronchospasms, increased mucus secretion, and mucosal edema. In people with asthma these airways are chronically inflamed making them hypersensitive to triggers.

Current statistics show:

  • Approximately 25 million people in America have asthma. 1 in 13 people.
  • 7.6% of adults, 8,4% of children have asthma.
  • More women, 9.7% ….than men, 5.4% have asthma.
  • More boys than girls have asthma.
  • More children than adults have asthma.
  • African-Americans are three times as likely to be hospitalized and to die from asthma.
  • 13.4% of African-American children compared to 7.4% of white children have asthma.

(CDC Medical Review, 2018)


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Nature: Butterflies and Moths

Orange-Tip 橙尖粉蝶 Anthocaris Sara (Family Pieridae, Whites and Sulpurs)

The meadows are lushly green; dew sparkles on the leaflets; the air is pleasantly warm and delightful; then, almost magically it seems, the carpets of new-born buttercups by the creeks come alive with the bright flashing of Orange-Tip wings. It is the spring brood of the Orange-Tip come with the first wave of real warmth to gladden the land with new beauty. The sharply-marked orange and black of the upper corners of the fore-wings, contrasting to abruptly with the white of the rest of the wings instantly mark this butterfly from all others save the rare Felder’s Orange-Tip, (A. ce-thura), which, however has much less black. Note also the soft leaf-like appearance of the under-wing markings. A rare from has the wings suffused with yellow. In the east the Falcate Orange Tip (Anthocaris genutia) with a hooked wing tip, is found in woods.

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