Nature: Butterflies and Moths

Pearly Wood Nymph 珍珠木仙女 (Family Noctuidae, Nocturnal Moths)

In the dark shadows of the night loveliness may surround us and we would not know it. This beautiful night moth, like a pearl hidden in the folds of an oyster, must be searched out and found in the darkness to be appreciated. Such a moth sometimes comes to a light, but more often it is captured by putting out a sweet bait on tree trunks to which the moths come. Such a bait is one made of a mixture of decaying bananas, fermented beer and molasses, which some moths seem to love. The collector then goes out very quietly in the night darkness, carrying a flashlight, turning the light carefully on the trees where the bait has been put. What a mysterious adventure this becomes when you see such beauties of the night as the Pearly Wood-nymph of the under-wing moths sipping greedily at the sweet lure.

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Nature: Butterflies and Moths

Lustrous Copper 光彩夺目的铜蝴蝶 (Family Lycaenidae, Coppers, Blues and Hairstreaks)

In the grasses, in the meadows, by the wood’s edges, down along the sparkling streams, the coppers play. Merry is their dancing and happy their flight from flower to flower. The under-wings are duller than the bright-colored upper-wings so that their defense against enemies is not often to fly from them, but to hide quickly in the grass or flowers, cling to a stem and fold the wings together. The dull colors merge with the foliage around them, hiding them. But sometimes one is seen to fly right into the heart of a copper-colored flower and then the wings are spread flat so that the bright upper wing color merges with the flower’s bright colors.

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Hypothyroidism 甲状腺功能减退

Hypothyroidism is a condition that comes from your thyroid gland producing inadequate amounts of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. Common symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, sensitivity to cold, constipation, dry skin, weight gain, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, elevated cholesterol, muscle aches, tenderness, stiffness, joint pain, swelling, irregular or heavy menstrual periods in women, thinning hair, depression, impaired memory, and slowed heart rate (Mayo Clinic, 2018).

Clinical manifestations:

  • Fatigue and lethargy
  • Weight gain
  • Complaints of cold hands and feet
  • Temperature and pulse become subnormal; patient cannot tolerate cold and desires increased room temperature
  • Reduced attention span; impaired short-term memory
  • Severe constipation
  • Generalized appearance of thick, puffy skin; subcutaneous swelling in hands, feet, and eyelids
  • Thinning hair, loss of the lateral one-third of eyebrow
  • Menorrhagia or amenorrhea
  • Neurologic signs include polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, muscle aches or weakness, clumsiness, prolonged deep tendon reflexes
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia and hypercholesterolemia
  • Enlarged heart on chest x-ray
  • Increased susceptibility to all hypnotic and sedative drugs and anesthetic agents
  • Syndrome of subclinical hypothyroidism: state in which the patient is asymptomatic and the free T4 level is within the normal range; however, the TSH level is elevated, suggesting impending thyroid gland failure. Therefore, many clinicians may elect to treat this condition as if the patient were symptomatic.

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Substance Abuse, Dependence, and Addictions- Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) 药物滥用, 依赖, 成瘾

Incidence and prevalence

As according to Raynor and Pope (2016), “it is estimated that more than 8 million (an estimated 12%) children in America lived with at least one parent who was dependent on or abused alcohol or illicit drugs”, “according to the results from the 2013 National survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 5.4% of pregnant women were current illicit drug users based on data averaged across 2012 and 2013”. (p. 180).

In the terms of substance abuse or dependence, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. Substance abuse may be unintentionally from initial used, but the abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive substances has become an endemic problem, and the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.

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Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) 三叉神经痛

Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) is a facial disorder described as one-sided, spasmodic stabbing, and recurrent pain found in the one or more of the sensory branches located near the fifth cranial nerve. This is one of the most common diseases associated with cranial nerves and one of the most often diagnosed facial pain complications (Sabalys, Juodzbalys, & Wang, 2012).

TN can be a very debilitating disorder as the painful experience can last anywhere from a few seconds to many minutes, and the episodic pain may occur a few times a day or can manifest hundreds of times in a 24-hour time frame (Zakrzewska & Linskey, 2014). The pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia may not always be constant due to this disease process is known for having periods of remission that can last for several months or even a year (Sabalys, Juodzbalys, & Wang, 2012). However, the pain does return after some time without treatment.

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