Nursing Continue Education

Costochondritis 肋软骨炎

Costochondritis is an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum (Mayo Clinic, 2018). The pain from costochondritis may mimic those symptoms of a heart attack or similar heart conditions. This is common and occurs in about 28% of undifferentiated noncardiac patients that present with chest pain (Ferri, 2018). It occurs more in women than men and is more prevalent in people over the age of 40 (Ferri, 2018). The cause of costochondritis is largely unknown, however, it may be caused by a chest injury, hard exercise or heavy lifting, viral infections, strain from coughing, and infections occurring after surgery (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018).

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Pneumonia 肺炎

Incidence and prevalence of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a respiratory disorder that affects the lungs (Dela & Wunderlink, 2017). It causes difficulty in breathing since the alveoli are filled with pus that limits oxygen intake. Pneumonia has caused more deaths worldwide according to the world health organization report. It accounts for approximately 16% of children’s deaths below five years. People aged 65 years or older are also at a higher risk of contracting the disease and can easily die when attacked. Statistics indicate that pneumonia affects 5.6 million people annually in the United States. Most of the affected individuals succumb to the condition without them knowing. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate the causes, signs and symptoms, prevention, and treatment of the disorder in a bid to manage the condition.

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