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Bursitis

Bursitis is an inflammation a small fluid-filled sac called bursa that lubricates to reduce friction between a bone and muscle, skin or tendon. The most common places bursitis occurs is the olecranon and prepatellar bursae, but can also occur at the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous calcaneal bursea (Khodee, 2017). There various type of bursitis all of which depend on the affected bursa location.  The commonly affected areas of the condition include the elbow, shoulder, hip, knees, and calf. The primary cause of this condition is sports injuries and repetitive movements although other factors such as bad posture, some types of arthritis, diabetes and certain medications effects may also cause bursitis (Sayegh & Strauch, 2014).

The exact prevalence and incidence of bursitis are not known. However, according to the report given by national health interview survey on disability, the incidence of bursitis is approximated to be 560 cases per every 100,000 admissions (Rhyou et al., 2016). The prevalence rate is estimated to be 32 cases in every 1000 people (Rhyou et al., 2016).  Bursitis is a very common condition that even affects healthy individuals. It can occur at any age and affects both genders although the attack rate depends on the type of bursitis. For example, the incidence of trochanteric bursitis is higher in middle-aged groups as compared to elderly adults while prepatellar and septic bursitis commonly affects males than females.

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Pectus Carinatum (seek nonoperative treatment )

Pectus Carinatum:

Recently, a friend asked me what the best supplement is for a 12-year-old boy with pectus carinatum. I searched my memory, and I could not think of anything/ knowledge related to this disease. Therefore, my advice to her was a very common and not so responsive answer, “I would encourage parents to consult with his or her doctor for the best advice”.

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COPD -Reading and Sharing

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD is a condition of the lungs that is progressive. Airflow is limited and it is not completely reversible. It is an obstruction of pulmonary airflow. The bronchial wall becomes inflamed and there is increased mucus secretion along with decreased lung elasticity (Grossman & Porth, 2014). It is a disease that approximately 5% of the adults in the U.S. have. It is also a leading cause of death. COPD has become a global problem and is climbing on the list as a leading cause of death worldwide.

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Seizures – 癫痫 发作 (Reading and Sharing)

Seizures occur due to sudden and abnormal changes in the electrical activities of the brain. The change may be easily noticeable and dramatic or there may never be any symptoms at all. Severe seizures are characterized by shaking violently and lack of control. Non-severe seizures also pose a consequential medical problem and should never be ignored (Engel, 2013).

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Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) occurs when the arteries are blocked by atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis occurs when cholesterol plaques block arteries (Grossman & Porth, 2014). PAD causes a narrowing of the arterial lumen that leads to impaired blood flow to the lower extremities (Ferri, 2018). It mostly occurs in the lower extremities and is sometimes referred to as arteriosclerosis obliterans (Grossman & Porth, 2014).

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