Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most frequent musculoskeletal problems in the working age people doing repetitive movements, working on things that had hand arm conveyed pulsation, vigorous manual labor and circuitous movement of the wrist (Roquelaure et al., 2017) According to Ibrahim, Khan, Goddard, and Smitham (2012), Carpal Tunnel Syndrome impacts about 3.8% of the general population and accounts for 90% of all nerve entrapment neuropathies. It is most prevalent between the ages of 30 to 60 years old but can occur at any age.Incidence rates in the overall population are approximately 61–120 per 100,000 women and 35–60 per 100,000 men annually. Older women aging between 65-74 years have the highest prevalence that is nearly four times higher in men which is 5.1% compared to 1.3% individually (Padua et al., 2016).
Bell’s palsy is a medical disease that has a cause of an unknown origin. It can be very scary for many patients as it results in one sided facial paralysis which can mirror stroke symptoms at first glance (Hultcrantz, 2016). If affects nearly 25-30 people per 100,000 per year and about 70% of all cases have their facial movement restored. It affects males and females equally with an average age of 70 years old. Some of the risk factors are older age, pregnancy and diabetes and it is believed that Bell Palsy is caused by viral inflammation and immune response (Ferri, 2017).
As according to Raynor and Pope (2016), “it is estimated that more than 8 million (an estimated 12%) children in America lived with at least one parent who was dependent on or abused alcohol or illicit drugs”, “according to the results from the 2013 National survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 5.4% of pregnant women were current illicit drug users based on data averaged across 2012 and 2013”. (p. 180).
In the terms of substance abuse or dependence, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. Substance abuse may be unintentionally from initial used, but the abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive substances has become an endemic problem, and the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.
Humans acquire data and information in bits and pieces and then transform the information into knowledge. The information-processing functions of the brain are frequently compared to those of a computer, and vice versa. Humans can be thought of as organic information systems that are constantly acquiring, processing, and generating information of knowledge or knowledge in their professional and personal lives. they have an amazing ability to manage knowledge. This ability is learned and honed from birth as individuals make their way through life interacting with the environment and being inundated with data and information. Each person experiences the environment and learns by acquiring, processing, generating, and disseminating knowledge.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is primarily a disease of cartilage. Cartilage is a tissue with viscoelastic and compressive properties. It is predominantly composed of type II collagen and proteoglycans. In a normal condition the extracellular matrix undergoes a dynamic remodeling process in which low levels of degradative and synthetic enzyme activities are balanced. When OA is present, the matrix degrading enzymes will become overexpressed. This results in loss of collagen and proteoglycans from the matrix (Ling & Bathon, 2012). Once the articular cartilage breaks down, the progressive formation of osteophytes (bone spurs) protrude into the joint space decreasing joint movement.
Clinical manifestations of OA usually consist of pain, stiffness and functional impairment. Movement or exercise may aggravate the joint pain. The affected joint may have a decreased range of motion and may appear enlarged. OA often occurs in weight-bearing joints such as hips, knees, cervical and lumbar spine although the interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints may also be involved.