Temporal arteritis is a condition in which the temporal arteries supplying blood to the head and brain become inflamed or damaged. Temporal arteritis is also known as cranial arteritis or giant cell arteritis. Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a segmental systemic granulomatous arteritis affecting medium and large arteries in individuals >50 yr. The inflammation primarily targets branches of the extracranial head and neck blood vessels (external carotids, temporal arteries, ciliary and ophthalmic arteries). The aorta and subclavian and brachial arteries can also be affected. Intracranial arteritis is rare (Ferri, 2018).
There are approximately 20 new cases of temporal arteritis for every 100,000 people over 50 years of age. Incidence increases with age with the highest rate being among those 70-79 years old, is more common in women than in men by 3:1 and is more often seen in Caucasians than any other race (Petri, Nevitt, Sarsour, Napalkov, and Collinson, 2015). There are no estimates of the prevalence of GCA in the United States population in the current millennium. Most cases are paired with a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR).
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Bipolar disorder is a complex brain disorder in which moods range from periods of mania followed by episodes of depression (Ferri, 2018). Unfortunately, the management of the disease has no specific combination of psychosocial and medication regime that works well for everyone’s mood instability. So, therefore, the right combination to manage a particular patient’s mood instability takes time and can change over time due to the patient’s noncompliance with medication and frustration with treatment.
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Anxiety can be normal from time to time, but excessive ongoing anxiety and worry that someone might have difficulty in controlling and interfere with day-to-day activities may be a sign of generalized anxiety disorder (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2018, p. 1). This disease is a chronic condition with exacerbations and suicide risk is higher than in the general population.
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Seizures occur due to sudden and abnormal changes in the electrical activities of the brain. The change may be easily noticeable and dramatic or there may never be any symptoms at all. Severe seizures are characterized by shaking violently and lack of control. Non-severe seizures also pose a consequential medical problem and should never be ignored (Engel, 2013).
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Fungal infections can affect millions of people worldwide. Dermophytes are the most common cause of fungal infections and can spread very easily, especially in the right environment with warmth and high humidity (Sahoo & Mahajan, 2016). Tinea corporis is a type of dermatophyte fungal infection that is caused by Trichophyton or Microsporium (Ferri, 2018). This highly contagious, mildly puretic infection is also known as ring worm because of its well-demarcated plaques that maybe accompanied by pustules or papules and often has scaling at the edges with a central clearing (Fenstermacher & Hudson, 2016).
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