All About Nursing · Hospice & Palliative Care

Definitions Hospice

You matter because you are you. You matter to the last moment of life, and we will do all we can, not only to help you die peacefully, but also to live until you die. (Saunders in Stoddard, 1978)

  • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) defines hospice as:

“A holistic approach to treatment that recognizes that the impending death of an individual warrants a change from curative to palliative care. Palliative care means ‘patient-and family-centered care that optimizes quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering. Palliative care throughout the continuum of illness involves addressing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual needs and to facilitate patient autonomy, access to information, and choice.'”

  • The National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO) defines hospice as:
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All About Nursing · Hospice & Palliative Care

Origins and a Bit of History of Hospice

Concept antedates 475 AD

  • The term hospes, a Latin word, from which the term hospice is derived, means to be both host and guest and implies interaction and mutual caring between the patient, family, and hospice staff.
  • Self-sustained communities evolved after 335 AD where ill, weary, homeless, and dying persons received care
  • During the early middle ages, the words hospice, hospital, and hostel were used interchangeably
  • Also during the middle ages, hospitia or travelers’ rest at monasteries and convents provided food, shelter, as well as care for those sick or dying.
  • The care and support of the whole person (the body, soul, mind, and spirit) evolved in these early hospices
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Hospice & Palliative Care · Nursing Continue Education

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) – Reading & Sharing

Definition, Etiology, and Incidence


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig disease after the famous New York Yankees baseball player, is a devastating neurologic disorder that selectively affects motor function with an unknown origin, results in muscle weakness, disability, respiratory insufficiency, and eventually death. ALS has an annual incidence of 0.5-2 per 100,000 population, is primarily a disorder of middle to late adulthood, affecting people most frequently in their fifties, with men developing the disease nearly twice as often as women. The median survival duration for patient is approximately 3 years, yet approximately 20% of patients survive greater than 5 years, and 10% will survive for greater than 10 years.

As the main area of involvement is the motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, ASL affects motor neurons in three locations as follows: the anterior horn cells (lower motor neurons – LMNs) of the spinal cord; the motor nuclei of the brain stem, particularly the hypoglossal nuclei; and the upper motor neurons (UMNs) of the cerebral cortex. The death of the LMNs leads to denervation, with subsequent shrinkage of musculature and muscle fiber atrophy. It is this fiber atrophy, called amyotrophy, which appears in the name of the disease. The loss of nerve fibers in lateral columns of the white matter of the spinal cord, along with fibrillary gliosis, imparts a firmness or sclerosis to this CNS tissue. The term lateral sclerosis designates these changes.

A remarkable feature of the disease is that the entire sensory system, the regulatory mechanisms of control and coordination of movement, and the intellect remain intact.

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Hospice & Palliative Care

HPCC SUGGESTED REFERENCES in Preparing for the Certification Examination for Hospice and Palliative Registered Nurses

***Primary Reference List (Used for CHPN exam item validation):


Berger, A., Shuster, J. and Von Roenn, J. (Eds.) (2013). Principles and Practice of Palliative Care and Supportive Oncology (4th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

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