Risk Factors: include age 55 and older, family history of chronic venous insufficiency, high body mass index, venous reflux in deep veins, medical history of (pulmonary embolism, superficial or deep vein thrombosis, lower extremity skeletal or joint disease), multiple pregnancies, physical inactivity, and a history of venous ulcers.
Venous ulcers are large and irregularly shaped with well-defined borders and a shallow, sloping edge. Slough with granulating tissue comprise the base of the wound, with moderate to heavy exudate. Patients typically experience no pain to mild pain in the extremity, which is relieved with elevation. Venous ulcers are most frequently located on the lower legs, such as above the lateral or medial malleolus with a medial and circumferential presentation. Common Symptoms include edema that worsens throughout the day, pruritus, pain that improves with elevation, and heaviness of the affected limb. Assessment frequently finds abnormally dilated veins around the foot and ankle, atrophic white scarring, and an inverted champagne bottle appearance of the extremity.