Cardiac valve disease normally occurs from valve vegetation or thickening (Ferri, 2018). Most valve damage occurs in the pulmonary valve followed by the aortic valve (Singhi & Kumar, 2015). Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of cardiac valve disease and is a major cause of heart failure in children and adults (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Rheumatic heart disease is caused by Group A streptococcal infections that are not treated or not completely treated (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Most valve disease seen in the adult population is rheumatic in etiology and could have been prevented if the underlying infection would have been treated (Moreas and Tarasoutchi, 2014). There is also a chance of congenital heart disease affecting the valves of the heart. Congenital heart disease occurs at a rate of 6-8 per 1,000 live births, with 15-20% of children having valvular involvement (Singhi & Kumar, 2015).
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the progressive growth of a thrombi or a clot in the deep veins of the arms, legs and the pelvis. There are more or less 900,000 cases of DVTs in the USA identified each year and if left untreated, die of pulmonary embolism. DVT and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) are two significant venous thromboembolism (VTE) events that carry a significant universal healthcare problem. It affects the frail, the elderly and patient populations undergoing major surgery. The risk of getting DVT is known to be greater in men than women (Ferri, 2018). In the study conducted by Wang et al, (2016) it stated that the incidence of DVT varies from 93-124 cases per 100,000 in West Europe, 116 cases per 100,000 in the USA between 52-55 cases per 100,000 in Australia and New Zealand. Asians seemed to be luckier than the other patient population as there are lesser incidences of DVT in that part of the world.
Schizophrenia, this disease is chronic and can be disabling to a person and their family. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that can affect how a person thinks, feels, and behaves, making them seem almost “out of touch” with reality (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). Without proper treatment, these patients can really hurt themselves or someone else.
In terms of substance abuse, dependence, or addiction, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. According to Mayerson and Julian (2017), Drug or substance addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. Very often, under the influences of substance/ drug addiction, the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.
“Pain is a highly complex phenomenon that involves biological, psychological and social variables.” (Carterett, 2010, p.1) An increasing cultural diversity in our country means that health care providers must offer culturally relevant treatment and care on a daily basis. Although race, ethnicity and culture or often used interchangeably, they actually represent very different concepts.
- Race as a construct identifies people according to their ancestry, a genetic heritage.
- Ethnicity refers not only to biological and physical characteristics but also include culture and behavior.
- Culture can be defined as a coherent set of values, beliefs and concepts, or a set of learned attitudes or ideals that mold the behavior of a population or particular society.