Bipolar disorder is a complex and challenging brain disorder in which moods range from periods of mania followed by episodes of depression, from sadness to euphoria (Ferri, 2018). Bipolar disorder used to be called manic-depressive because of these two symptoms.
During a manic phase you will usually see a decreased need for sleep, an inflated self-esteem, pressured or fast speech patterns, flight of ideas, racing thoughts, distractibility, risky behaviors or an increase in goal-directed activities (Ferri, 2018). It is possible for individuals to develop delusions or hallucinations during the manic phase (INSA, 2017). Followed by the manic phase will be a depressive episode. During the depressive episode individuals will feel feelings of worthlessness, thoughts of suicide, disinterest in work, family, or friends (INSA, 2017). It is during the depressive phase that most people seek medical assistance.
Unfortunately, the management of the disease has no specific combination of psychosocial and medication regime that works well for everyone’s mood instability. So, therefore, the right combination to manage a particular patient’s mood instability takes time and can change over time due to the patient’s noncompliance with medication and frustration with treatment. However, as with any chronic health condition the bipolar patient has to learn how to be compliant and make lifestyle changes to manage symptoms.
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The skin is normally populated with bacteria, and under healthy normal circumstances these bacteria do not routinely lead to infection. When there is an interruption to skin integrity or underlying immunocompromise however, these bacteria can cause an infection such as impetigo (VanRavenstein, Durham, Williams, & Smith, 2017). Ferri (2018) defines impetigo as a common bacterial superficial skin infection that is generally caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteria. Skin lesions can be described a bullous when multiple vesicles form on the skin, enlarge, and weep a yellow honey-like crust due to a toxin produced at the site of the infection (Ferri, 2018). As the weeping lesions become contagious and spread to the others, a dry scaly boarder forms to replace the old fluid-filled vesicle (Ferri, 2018). Non-bullous impetigo begins as a single red papule, usually around the nose or mouth, weep and produce a honey-like crust (Ferri, 2018).
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Fungal infections can affect millions of people worldwide. Dermophytes 皮真菌 are the most common cause of fungal infections and can spread very easily, especially in the right environment with warmth and high humidity (Sahoo & Mahajan, 2016). Tinea corporis is a type of dermatophyte fungal infection that is caused by Trichophyton or Microsporium (Ferri, 2018). This highly contagious, mildly pruritic infection is also known as ringworm because of its well-demarcated plaques that may be accompanied by pustules or papules and often has to scale at the edges with central clearing (Fenstermacher & Hudson, 2016). Some predisposing factors can put a person at higher risk of catching a dermphyte infection such as diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised status, Cushing’s, older age or lymphomas (Shoo & Mahajan, 2016). Tinea corporis can be found anywhere on the body but is usually below the trunk distributed with either single or multiple lesions presents (Ferri, 2018). Warm areas that are sweaty such as the groin or armpits are most often affected in part because of their more alkaline pH (Shoo & Mahajan, 2016). It is important to educate patients that tinea corporis can spread very easily with the skin to skin contact. This highly contagious infection can often spread through daycares or wrestling teams before lesions are even noticed. It is important to keep all areas effected clean and dry as well as to teach the importance of hand washing.
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The main source of energy in your body cells that make up muscles and other tissue is Glucose, a sugar.
- Glucose is derived from foods you ingest and is stored in your liver as glycogen.
- Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and with the assistance of insulin, enters cells
- Your liver also makes glucose
- To keep your glucose levels within normal range, your liver will break down glycogen to glucose and send it into the bloodstream. This might occur if you haven’t eaten for a while, for instance, overnight.
This process in the normal way in which your body maintains a normal blood sugar level (Mayo Clinic, 2018)
Continue reading “Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) 糖尿病 (Reading & Sharing Part 2)”
Diabetic mellitus (DM) is an endocrine condition that involves the inability of the body to regulate glucose in the system consequently affecting the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein. The table below shows interesting facts about the different types of DM for clarification. (Braun et al 2017, & Klandorf et al 2013). DM Type 2 will be the focus of this entire discussion.
|DM Classification (Types)
|Insulin Dependent DM (Type 1)
||Childhood – Puberty. Peak= 10-14yrs old, increases in adulthood
||Insulin Deficit due to inability to produce insulin
|Non-Insulin Dependent DM (Type 2)
||Adulthood with Peak period at 45 years old and increasing under 45 years old
||Insulin resistance or impaired inability of the tissue to use insulin in response to the body’s needs.
||Pregnancy and peaks at the 5th or 6th month gestation.
||Inability to make additional Insulin that is needed during pregnancy.
Continue reading “Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) 糖尿病 (Reading & Sharing Part 1)”