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Breast Cancer – Carcinoma of the Breast (Reading & Sharing)

Breast cancer refers to both in situ and invasive carcinoma of the breast. Breast cancer can be of either ductal or lobular types. Breast canceris nearly exlusively the disease of women, with only 1% of breast cancers occuring in males. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women and leading cause of death due to cancer in women 20-59 years old. More than 50% occurs in women over age 61.

Risk factors include hormone exposure, family or personal history, lifestyle factors, exposure to radiation; smoking; obesity; early menarche; late menopause; postmenopausal hormone therapy; excessive alcohol use; nulliparity; 5% to 6% are associated with a genetic mutation.

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All About Nursing · Hospice & Palliative Care · Nursing Continue Education

Palliative Care (宁养服务)

Palliative care is available to acutely ill patients, may be provided along with disease-specific, life-prolonging treatment. Meticulous attention to be prevention and relief of pain and other burdensome symptoms is a basic part of quality palliative care. Yet, comprehensive palliative care includes much more. Psychosocial and spiritual care, counseling, and guidance in choosing among treatment options, and assisting with practical support for patients and caregivers are all equally fundamental components of comprehensive palliative care. It is critical to stress that palliative care should be provided from the time of diagnosis of a serious, debilitating, or life-limiting illness. Palliative care should be an integral part of healthcare aimed to achieve best possible outcomes including optimal quality of life, function, and opportunities for personal growth across the life span. Palliative care can and should be provided along with any disease-modifying treatments. And, yes, for some people with advanced illness, palliative care may be the main focus of care.

寧養服務適用於任何人——無論什麼年齡, 種族, 文化, 背景或宗教, 而且大多數服務是免費的。您可以在病情的任何階段使用寧養服務,這並不僅僅是為生命即將到達終點的人而設。使用寧養服務並不意味著生命沒有希望,您已經“放棄”或您的家庭不在乎您。您可以在接受寧養服務的同時繼續治療。

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All About Nursing · Hospice & Palliative Care

Definitions Hospice

You matter because you are you. You matter to the last moment of life, and we will do all we can, not only to help you die peacefully, but also to live until you die. (Saunders in Stoddard, 1978)

  • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) defines hospice as:

“A holistic approach to treatment that recognizes that the impending death of an individual warrants a change from curative to palliative care. Palliative care means ‘patient-and family-centered care that optimizes quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering. Palliative care throughout the continuum of illness involves addressing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual needs and to facilitate patient autonomy, access to information, and choice.'”

  • The National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO) defines hospice as:
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All About Nursing · Hospice & Palliative Care

Determining Prognosis: Patients with End-Stage Lung Disease (Reading & Sharing)

Disabling Dyspnea & Respiratory Distress

Defined by:

  • Dyspnea at rest or with minimal exertion
  • Dyspnea poorly responsive or unresponsive to bronchodilator therapy
  • Dyspnea results in other debilitating symptoms such as decreased functional activity, fatigue, and cough
  • FEV-1< 30% predicted post-bronchodilator, if available
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