Seizures occur due to sudden and abnormal changes in the electrical activities of the brain. The change may be easily noticeable and dramatic or there may never be any symptoms at all. Severe seizures are characterized by shaking violently and lack of control. Non-severe seizures also pose a consequential medical problem and should never be ignored (Engel, 2013).
Incidence and prevalence
Seizures can either be epileptic or non-epileptic and about one percent of America’s population experience epilepsy during their lives. Also, almost one person among twenty-six people experiences seizures which are usually recurring. In approximation, three hundred thousand people suffering from epilepsy are under 14 years of age while five hundred thousand people are over 65 years of age. Among those people, one out of 10 people will experience a seizure at least once in their lifetime (Engel, 2013).
Pathophysiology from an advanced practice examination
Seizures occur when there is a change in the electrical activities of the cerebral cortex. Unexpected changes in the inhibitory and excitatory forces in the brain result in a seizure. Almost a third of seizures usually result from abnormalities associated with the genetic composition which involves ion channels. About a quarter of seizures result from structural lesions whose patients contain a little bit more of neurological abnormalities. Most of the lesions are genetically acquired and include brain growths, infections, and brain injuries. Genetically obtained seizures include genetic tumor symptoms and metabolic disorders. Additionally, synapse development plays a significant role in the occurrence of seizures (French, Krauss, Biton, Squillacote, Yang, Laurenza, & Ilari, 2012).
Physical assessment and examination
The diagnosis of seizures is made mostly by deriving data from the history of the patient provided by the observers to the patient or even the patients themselves. A doctor or nurse practitioner performs an examination generally when a patient visits the hospital to be treated for seizure for the first time. Through examination and laboratory examinations, a doctor can tell whether the patient’s organs such as the kidneys and liver are functioning correctly. A deep analysis of the patient’s history as related to a seizure should be undertaken. The history of any member of the family who has experienced seizures is important to establish whether it is genetic or not. The presence of other disorders such as infections, stroke, and tumors should be investigated since these may contribute significantly to the occurrence of seizures. Physical examination should also be undertaken to evaluate the symptoms of infections, long-term kidney or liver diseases, and other possible disorders. EEG is also an important tool to find brain electrical activity abnormalities. An in-depth examination of the neurology is important for establishing the possible areas causing the dysfunction (Petit-Petrol et., al 2014).
Evidence-based treatment plan and patient education
The goal of treating seizures is to enable patients to live a seizure-free life without limiting themselves due to recurrent seizures. The evidence-based treatment plan is meant to help health care providers to make good decisions about the treatment of seizures. Practically the treatment should involve a keen evaluation of the probability of future seizures, dangers associated with recurring seizures, and the results they have on lifestyles, as well as the negative effects of the medication. Also, the following should be considered: Occupation, personal preferences, age, childbearing status, and averting risks. It is also important for patients to refrain from using medicine in a case where there is no possible recurrence of seizures in the absence of medications.
The evidence-based treatment plan involves utilizing the existing evidence on risks associated with the recurrence of seizures, the efficiency of the drug used to prevent seizures in the future not forgetting the risks associated with the treatment in adults. Seizure patients should be educated on their condition to equip them with knowledge on their diagnosis and treatment. This way they may be able to cooperate well and hence lead to the positive impact of the treatment (Krook-Magnuson, Armstrong, Oijala & Soltesz, 2013). Follow-up and assessment of the efficacy of the evidence-based treatment plan are necessary to ensure that the patients are fully cured. Assessment of the efficacy of the plan is done to ensure that the plan is successful and can be used for future patients to foster a positive impact on them. The follow-up can be done using the patients or their families to ensure that there is no chance that a recurrence would occur in the future.
Seizures in children and adults are very dangerous if not diagnosed and treated on time. Various symptoms provide evidence on the occurrence of a seizure. These symptoms should never be ignored and treatment should be sought in time to prevent dangers associated with seizures. After treatment is done, follow-ups and assessments on the treatment should be done to ensure that the treatment plan worked efficiently.
Engel, J. (2013). Seizures and epilepsy (Vol. 83). Oxford University Press.
French, J. A., Krauss, G. L., Biton, V., Squillacote, D., Yang, H., Laurenza, A. & Ilari, R. (2012). Adjunctive perampanel for refractory partial-onset seizures randomized phase III study 304. Neurology.
Krook-Magnuson, E., Armstrong, C., Oijala, M., & Soltesz, I. (2013). On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. Nature communications.
Petit-Pedrol, M., Armangue, T., Peng, X., Bataller, L., Cellucci, T., Davis, R. & Ritacco, D. G. (2014). Encephalitis with refractory seizures, status epilepticus, and antibodies to the GABA A receptor: a case series, characterization of the antigen, and analysis of the effects of antibodies. The Lancet Neurology.