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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) 糖尿病 (Reading & Sharing Part 2)

The main source of energy in your body cells that make up muscles and other tissue is Glucose, a sugar.

  • Glucose is derived from foods you ingest and is stored in your liver as glycogen.
  • Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and with the assistance of insulin, enters cells
  • Your liver also makes glucose
  • To keep your glucose levels within normal range, your liver will break down glycogen to glucose and send it into the bloodstream.  This might occur if you haven’t eaten for a while, for instance, overnight.

This process in the normal way in which your body maintains a normal blood sugar level (Mayo Clinic, 2018)

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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DMT2) 糖尿病 (Reading & Sharing Part 1)

Diabetic mellitus (DM) is an endocrine condition that involves the inability of the body to regulate glucose in the system consequently affecting the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein. The table below shows interesting facts about the different types of DM for clarification. (Braun et al 2017, & Klandorf et al 2013). DM Type 2 will be the focus of this entire discussion.

DM Classification (Types) Lifespan Onset Etiology (Cause)
Insulin Dependent DM (Type 1) Childhood – Puberty. Peak= 10-14yrs old, increases in adulthood Insulin Deficit due to inability to produce insulin
Non-Insulin Dependent DM (Type 2) Adulthood with Peak period at 45 years old and increasing under 45 years old Insulin resistance or impaired inability of the tissue to use insulin in response to the body’s needs.
Gestational DM Pregnancy and peaks at the 5th or 6th month gestation. Inability to make additional Insulin that is needed during pregnancy.

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Ganglion Cyst 神经节囊肿 (Reading & Sharing)

A ganglion cyst is a common soft tissue swelling often found in the hand and wrist. It is a cyst filled with viscous, sticky, and mucinous fluid that can be single or multiloculated. They are benign lesions, they may lead to pain, weakness, and loss of function, and may require treatment. They are masses located on the dorsal or volar aspect of the wrist or surrounding structures (Blazar, 2017).

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Cardiac Valve Disease 心脏瓣膜疾病

Cardiac valve disease normally occurs from valve vegetation or thickening (Ferri, 2018). Most valve damage occurs in the pulmonary valve followed by the aortic valve (Singhi & Kumar, 2015). Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of cardiac valve disease and is a major cause of heart failure in children and adults (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Rheumatic heart disease is caused by Group A streptococcal infections that are not treated or not completely treated (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Most valve disease seen in the adult population is rheumatic in etiology and could have been prevented if the underlying infection would have been treated (Moreas and Tarasoutchi, 2014). There is also a chance of congenital heart disease affecting the valves of the heart. Congenital heart disease occurs at a rate of 6-8 per 1,000 live births, with 15-20% of children having valvular involvement (Singhi & Kumar, 2015).

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Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) 深静脉血栓 (Reading & Sharing)

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the progressive growth of a thrombi or a clot in the deep veins of the arms, legs and the pelvis. There are more or less 900,000 cases of DVTs in the USA identified each year and if left untreated, die of pulmonary embolism. DVT and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) are two significant venous thromboembolism (VTE) events that carry a significant universal healthcare problem. It affects the frail, the elderly and patient populations undergoing major surgery. The risk of getting DVT is known to be greater in men than women (Ferri, 2018). In the study conducted by Wang et al, (2016) it stated that the incidence of DVT varies from 93-124 cases per 100,000 in West Europe, 116 cases per 100,000 in the USA between 52-55 cases per 100,000 in Australia and New Zealand. Asians seemed to be luckier than the other patient population as there are lesser incidences of DVT in that part of the world.

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