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Headaches 头疼

Neurologic System: According to Ferri (2018), headaches: can be cluster, migraines, or tension

Cluster Headaches: 丛集性头痛

Headaches that have a sudden onset, severe in pain. It can affect orbital, supraorbital, temporal, or any combination of sites, that is unilateral in location. Cluster headaches have a duration of 15 mins to 2 hours. Frequency can be from every other day to several times per day. Patients will often express a feeling of agitation during that time of an attack.

Incidence/ Prevalence: Only occurs in a small percentage of the population (0.05-1%). This occurs in males five times more than females between the ages of 20-40. May be inherited in up to 20% of cases.

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Peripheral Artery Disease 外周动脉疾病

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) occurs in the lower extremities when there is a build up of plague in the arteries which leads of narrowing of the arteries. This is also referred to as atherosclerosis. PAD affects both men and women equally and affects about 8.5 million Americans in the United States every year (CDC, 2016). It is also more common in the Hispanic population compared to Caucasians (CDC, 2016).

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is preventable and treatable disease usually caused by exposure to tobacco smoke. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. This disease is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles of gases, chronic airway irritation, mucus production, and pulmonary scarring and changes in pulmonary vasculature (Ferri, 2018).

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Lumbar Spinal Stenosis 腰椎管狭窄 (Reading & Sharing)

Definition, Pathophysiology, Incidence, and Prevalence

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal, lumbar stenosis is the narrowing of the lower back, the lumbar portion (Spinal stenosis, 2018). This spinal canal narrowing can place additional pressure onto the spinal cord nerves which may cause the affected individual pain. Ferri (2018) explains that in lumbar stenosis, the spinal nerve roots in the lower back become compressed and this can produce symptoms of sciatica involving: tingling, weakness, and/or numbness that radiates from the low back and into the buttocks and legs, especially with activity. Spinal stenosis can occur due to a variety of reasons. Most people with spinal stenosis are over the age of 50; however, some individuals have congenital defects with their spinal canal, causing compression on the spinal cord (Spinal stenosis, 2018). Other causes of lumbar spinal stenosis include: osteoarthritis of the vertebrae can prompt the formation of bone spurs, Paget’s disease, herniated vertebrae, tumors, spinal trauma, and thickened ligaments (Ferri, 2018).

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