Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the progressive growth of a thrombi or a clot in the deep veins of the arms, legs and the pelvis. There are more or less 900,000 cases of DVTs in the USA identified each year and if left untreated, die of pulmonary embolism. DVT and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) are two significant venous thromboembolism (VTE) events that carry a significant universal healthcare problem. It affects the frail, the elderly and patient populations undergoing major surgery. The risk of getting DVT is known to be greater in men than women (Ferri, 2018). In the study conducted by Wang et al, (2016) it stated that the incidence of DVT varies from 93-124 cases per 100,000 in West Europe, 116 cases per 100,000 in the USA between 52-55 cases per 100,000 in Australia and New Zealand. Asians seemed to be luckier than the other patient population as there are lesser incidences of DVT in that part of the world.
Schizophrenia, this disease is chronic and can be disabling to a person and their family. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that can affect how a person thinks, feels, and behaves, making them seem almost “out of touch” with reality (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). Without proper treatment, these patients can really hurt themselves or someone else.
In terms of substance abuse, dependence, or addiction, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. According to Mayerson and Julian (2017), Drug or substance addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. Very often, under the influences of substance/ drug addiction, the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.
Meningitis is the inflammation of the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, the layers that cover the brain and the spinal cord. There are two types of meningitis, the aseptic that is the most familiar form and the bacterial. In the United States, the incidence of meningitis is 1.3 to 3 cases per 100, 000 persons, more than 1 million cases annually worldwide and approximately 135,000 cases of deaths globally. It affects both male and female from the neonates to the geriatric patients (Ferri, 2018).
“Pain is a highly complex phenomenon that involves biological, psychological and social variables.” (Carterett, 2010, p.1) An increasing cultural diversity in our country means that health care providers must offer culturally relevant treatment and care on a daily basis. Although race, ethnicity and culture or often used interchangeably, they actually represent very different concepts.
- Race as a construct identifies people according to their ancestry, a genetic heritage.
- Ethnicity refers not only to biological and physical characteristics but also include culture and behavior.
- Culture can be defined as a coherent set of values, beliefs and concepts, or a set of learned attitudes or ideals that mold the behavior of a population or particular society.