Definition, Pathophysiology, Incidence, and Prevalence
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal, lumbar stenosis is the narrowing of the lower back, the lumbar portion (Spinal stenosis, 2018). This spinal canal narrowing can place additional pressure onto the spinal cord nerves which may cause the affected individual pain. Ferri (2018) explains that in lumbar stenosis, the spinal nerve roots in the lower back become compressed and this can produce symptoms of sciatica involving: tingling, weakness, and/or numbness that radiates from the low back and into the buttocks and legs, especially with activity. Spinal stenosis can occur due to a variety of reasons. Most people with spinal stenosis are over the age of 50; however, some individuals have congenital defects with their spinal canal, causing compression on the spinal cord (Spinal stenosis, 2018). Other causes of lumbar spinal stenosis include: osteoarthritis of the vertebrae can prompt the formation of bone spurs, Paget’s disease, herniated vertebrae, tumors, spinal trauma, and thickened ligaments (Ferri, 2018).
The physiologic mechanism causing the wound to become red, hot, and swollen is an acute inflammatory response, which is triggered by tissue injury and is essential for healing (Braun & Anderson, 2017). Tissue injury requires a response at the level of the blood vessel near the injury, so clotting can occur. Attracting the sufficient number of clotting factors and healing factors to the site of the injury to help prevent infection is key (Braun & Anderson, 2017).
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Looking at the word alone would make anybody itchy and guiding the patient to a room for examination would mean removing all the unnecessary equipments and clutters in the assigned area. Then the patient is placed in a contact isolation precaution.
Scabies is a transmissible opportunistic skin problem that affects humans and other animals caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. They are minute and not usually seen by the naked eye (Chosidow & Fuller, 2017).
Incidence and Prevalence of the Disorder
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Pain is individually and culturally subjective. Pain is each individual own physical and emotional experience. Pain is managed in different ways throughout the world. Cultural beliefs about the origin, role, and meaning of pain can affect how a patient perceives pain. Many beliefs regarding pain stem from religion and spirituality; for example, some religious groups believe pain is a part of God’s plan, a penance for sins, or a test of faith. In contrast, other cultures ascribe positive meanings to pain. These patients may view pain as a sign of progress toward recovery. The Chinese culture believes pain results from an imbalance between yin and yang, which has its roots in Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism (Martin & Barkley, 2016). There are also cultures who have negative attitudes toward expressing pain outwardly; for example, Black American, Hispanic American, Asian American, and American Indian patients may be reluctant to complain of pain due to strong cultural beliefs in stoicism. As a result, these patients may prefer to keep a neutral face and avoid grimacing, crying, or moaning, even if their pain is severe. Stoic pain behavior can lead to inaccurate pain assessments (Martin & Barkely, 2016).
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Humans acquire data and information in bits and pieces and then transform the information into knowledge. The information-processing functions of the brain are frequently compared to those of a computer, and vice versa. Humans can be thought of as organic information systems that are constantly acquiring, processing, and generating information of knowledge or knowledge in their professional and personal lives. they have an amazing ability to manage knowledge. This ability is learned and honed from birth as individuals make their way through life interacting with the environment and being inundated with data and information. Each person experiences the environment and learns by acquiring, processing, generating, and disseminating knowledge.
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