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Cardiac Valve Disease 心脏瓣膜疾病

Cardiac valve disease normally occurs from valve vegetation or thickening (Ferri, 2018). Most valve damage occurs in the pulmonary valve followed by the aortic valve (Singhi & Kumar, 2015). Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of cardiac valve disease and is a major cause of heart failure in children and adults (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Rheumatic heart disease is caused by Group A streptococcal infections that are not treated or not completely treated (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Most valve disease seen in the adult population is rheumatic in etiology and could have been prevented if the underlying infection would have been treated (Moreas and Tarasoutchi, 2014). There is also a chance of congenital heart disease affecting the valves of the heart. Congenital heart disease occurs at a rate of 6-8 per 1,000 live births, with 15-20% of children having valvular involvement (Singhi & Kumar, 2015).

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Nature: Butterflies and Moths

Lorquin’s Admiral 洛金的蝴蝶上将 Limenitis Torquini (Family Nymphalidae, Brush- footed Butterflies)

In the west this lovely butterfly flies in the woods and brush along streams, circling lazily in the sun or dropping down to luxuriously stretch its wings upon a leaf. Try to catch it, however, and it flies off with great speed, dipping up and down in flight or even flinging itself skyward in a great leap that may take it out-of-sight. Often the orange tips of the wings flash in the sunlight in a way that must be confusing to a bird trying to catch the butterfly, for the movement of the wings causes this flashing of color to appear and then disappear.

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Nature: Butterflies and Moths

Long-Tailed Skipper / 长尾弄蝶 (Family Hesperiidae, Skippers)

Up and over, down and up, now you see it an now you don’t, so flashes the Long-tailed Skipper, in an out of the bushes and flowers. But suddenly you see it lighting on a beautiful flower like a thirsty boy or girl lighting on an ice-cream soda. Its whole body quivers with ecstacy as the long tongue sips up the nectar. Now you can catch it while it is so forgetful, though that would be really not sporting!

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Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) 深静脉血栓 (Reading & Sharing)

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the progressive growth of a thrombi or a clot in the deep veins of the arms, legs and the pelvis. There are more or less 900,000 cases of DVTs in the USA identified each year and if left untreated, die of pulmonary embolism. DVT and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) are two significant venous thromboembolism (VTE) events that carry a significant universal healthcare problem. It affects the frail, the elderly and patient populations undergoing major surgery. The risk of getting DVT is known to be greater in men than women (Ferri, 2018). In the study conducted by Wang et al, (2016) it stated that the incidence of DVT varies from 93-124 cases per 100,000 in West Europe, 116 cases per 100,000 in the USA between 52-55 cases per 100,000 in Australia and New Zealand. Asians seemed to be luckier than the other patient population as there are lesser incidences of DVT in that part of the world.

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Schizophrenia /精神分裂症 (Reading & Sharing)

Schizophrenia, this disease is chronic and can be disabling to a person and their family. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that can affect how a person thinks, feels, and behaves, making them seem almost “out of touch” with reality (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). Without proper treatment, these patients can really hurt themselves or someone else.

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