Pain is individually and culturally subjective. Pain is each individual own physical and emotional experience. Pain is managed in different ways throughout the world. Cultural beliefs about the origin, role, and meaning of pain can affect how a patient perceives pain. Many beliefs regarding pain stem from religion and spirituality; for example, some religious groups believe pain is a part of God’s plan, a penance for sins, or a test of faith. In contrast, other cultures ascribe positive meanings to pain. These patients may view pain as a sign of progress toward recovery. The Chinese culture believes pain results from an imbalance between yin and yang, which has its roots in Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism (Martin & Barkley, 2016). There are also cultures who have negative attitudes toward expressing pain outwardly; for example, Black American, Hispanic American, Asian American, and American Indian patients may be reluctant to complain of pain due to strong cultural beliefs in stoicism. As a result, these patients may prefer to keep a neutral face and avoid grimacing, crying, or moaning, even if their pain is severe. Stoic pain behavior can lead to inaccurate pain assessments (Martin & Barkely, 2016).
In terms of substance abuse, dependence, or addiction, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. According to Mayerson and Julian (2017), Drug or substance addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. Very often, under the influences of substance/ drug addiction, the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.
End-of-life uncomfortable signs and symptoms: Part 2 Cont.
Nurses frequently care for patients at the end of life. One of the challenges is managing end-of-life (EOL) symptoms such as dyspnea and pain. For patients nearing death, relieving distressing symptoms is perhaps the most valuable contribution you can make. Thus, the goal of patient care changes from cure to comfort.
End-of-life uncomfortable signs and symptoms:
What is Osgood-Schlatter Disease?
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a painful enlargement of the bump of the shin bone (tibia) just below the knee. This bump is called the tibial tuberosity. The tendon from the kneecap (patella) inserts here. Osgood-Schlatter disease is commonly seen in growing (usually appears during a period of rapid growth), active adolescents, and most often seen in children between the ages of 10 and 15.