Addiction: Compulsive use of a substance that occurs when it is used in a way other than intended. Patients have cravings when the substance is withdrawn, with an overriding inability to control their perceived need for the substance, even though there may be an awareness that the substance, or overuse of the substance, is harmful.
Dependence: A state in which the person feels that they can only function normally when using a specific substance. Abrupt withdrawal of the substance causes withdrawal symptoms.
Pseudoaddiction: The mistaken assumption that a patient who is seeking pain relief is addicted to a substance.
Tolerance: Occurs when the patient no longer has a therapeutic response to the drug and a higher dose is required to achieve the prior effectiveness.
In terms of substance abuse, dependence, or addiction, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. According to Mayerson and Julian (2017), Drug or substance addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. Very often, under the influences of substance/ drug addiction, the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.
As according to Raynor and Pope (2016), “it is estimated that more than 8 million (an estimated 12%) children in America lived with at least one parent who was dependent on or abused alcohol or illicit drugs”, “according to the results from the 2013 National survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 5.4% of pregnant women were current illicit drug users based on data averaged across 2012 and 2013”. (p. 180).
In the terms of substance abuse or dependence, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. Substance abuse may be unintentionally from initial used, but the abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive substances has become an endemic problem, and the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.