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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) – Reading & Sharing

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States.

Conventional COPD treatments:

  • Inhaled therapy
    • Inhaled bronchodilator therapy: metered-dose inhalers and spacers, dry powder inhalers, or wet nebulizers
    • Inhaler technique should be assessed to ensure that a patient is able to use a device effectively.
    • The combination of a long-acting anticholinergic with an as-needed short-acting beta-agonist is a standard initial approach.
    • For many patients with advanced COPD, the addition of a combination inhaler containing a long-acting beta-agonist and an inhaled corticosteroid to a long-acting anticholinergic agent provides benefit in terms of symptom management and quality of life.
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COPD (Reading & Sharing)

COPD is or chronic obstructive airway disease is actually an umbrella term for a group of diseases that cause airway blockage and breathing problems in general. According to Higginson and Parry (2018), “COPD is a progressive obstructive lung disease that adversely affects the patient’s ability to both breathe and exchange gases between the alveoli and circulation due to loss of lung tissue” (p. 12). Those diseases included are emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthma. According to the CDC, almost 15.7 million Americans or 6.4% reported having COPD (CDC, 2018). The rate of COPD was higher in people aged 65 and older, American Indians and Alaskan Natives, current or former smokers, and those with a history of asthma (CDC, 2018).

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease usually caused by exposure to tobacco smoke. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. This disease is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles of gases, chronic airway irritation, mucus production, and pulmonary scarring and changes in pulmonary vasculature (Ferri, 2018).

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) /Reading and Sharing

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD is a condition of the lungs that is progressive. Airflow is limited and it is not completely reversible. It is an obstruction of pulmonary airflow. The bronchial wall becomes inflamed and there is increased mucus secretion along with decreased lung elasticity (Grossman & Porth, 2014).

In the United States 14% of adults between the ages of 40 to 79 years are affected with COPD, with the highest incidence in males greater than 40 years of age (Ferri, 2018). Ferri (2018), states that between 10% and 20% of COPD in the US is due to occupational or other exposure to chemical vapors, fumes, and irritants; 80% to 90% is due to cigarette smoking. Ferri (2018) further states that COPD is accountable for 16 million office visits, 500,000 hospitalizations, 120,000 deaths annually, and greater than $18 billion in direct health care costs annually can also be distributed to COPD. It is also a leading cause of death. COPD has become a global problem and is climbing on the list as a leading cause of death worldwide.

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