Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is preventable and treatable disease usually caused by exposure to tobacco smoke. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. This disease is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles of gases, chronic airway irritation, mucus production, and pulmonary scarring and changes in pulmonary vasculature (Ferri, 2018).
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD is a condition of the lungs that is progressive. Airflow is limited and it is not completely reversible. It is an obstruction of pulmonary airflow. The bronchial wall becomes inflamed and there is increased mucus secretion along with decreased lung elasticity (Grossman & Porth, 2014).
In the United States 14% of adults between the ages of 40 to 79 years are affected with COPD, with the highest incidence in males greater than 40 years of age (Ferri, 2018). Ferri (2018), states that between 10% and 20% of COPD in the US is due to occupational or other exposure to chemical vapors, fumes, and irritants; 80% to 90% is due to cigarette smoking. Ferri (2018) further states that COPD is accountable for 16 million office visits, 500,000 hospitalizations, 120,000 deaths annually, and greater than $18 billion in direct health care costs annually can also be distributed to COPD. It is also a leading cause of death. COPD has become a global problem and is climbing on the list as a leading cause of death worldwide.