A cough is the natural reflex response of the body to clear the airways, to the stimuli that may irritate the respiratory system, which consists mainly the nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and large bronchi. It is acute when it is less than 3 weeks, and chronic if beyond 8 weeks. Cough can also be generated by issues in the upper and lower airways, psychological issues, cardiovascular system pathophysiologic disturbances, and the side effects of certain medications like the ACE inhibitors. Cough is the fifth most common symptom that prompts the patients to see their health care provider in the primary care setting (Rhoads & Jensen, 2015). Mainly, the pathogenic triad of cough, that is responsible for 92% to 100% of cough, is due to upper airway cough syndrome which is commonly known as post nasal drip syndrome; asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The other associated signs and symptoms of cough are: fatigue, rhinitis, epistaxis, tickle in the throat, pharyngitis, night sweats, dyspnea, fever, sputum production, hoarseness and post nasal drip. As cough interferes with the activities of daily living and sleeping, there is a decrease in quality of life (QOL). Therefore, patients seek treatment in the health care settings (Cash & Glass, 2017).
- Interstitial cystitis (painful bladder syndrome), due to pain associated with bladder filling as well as urinary urgency and frequency. Urethritis due to typical symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) such as frequency and dysuria. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) due to abdominal or suprapubic pain.
On physical examination of a patient with a urinary tract infection, you may notice fevers, pelvic pain or tenderness on palpation, costovertebral angle tenderness (CVA) if pyelonephritis is considered, pain on urination, burning on urination, back pain or hematuria. Patients may also present with shaking and chills, nausea, and vomiting (Ferri, 2018).Continue reading “Differential Diagnosis: Interstitial Cystitis, Urethritis, and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease”
Seizures occur due to sudden and abnormal changes in the electrical activities of the brain. The change may be easily noticeable and dramatic or there may never be any symptoms at all. Severe seizures are characterized by shaking violently and lack of control. Non-severe seizures also pose a consequential medical problem and should never be ignored (Engel, 2013).Continue reading “Seizures – 癫痫 发作 (Reading and Sharing)”