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Ways of Knowing 通晓之道 – Barbara Carper (1978) – Reading & Sharing

Barbara Carper (1978) “Ways of Knowing”–there are four ways that nurse understand practice situations, and they are:

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Nursing Continue Education

Lung Cancer 肺癌 (Reading & Sharing)

Lung Cancer is the number one cause of cancer related deaths which is at 22%. Lung Cancer is the most common type of cancer in the world as evidenced by 46,403 new cases diagnosed in the United Kingdom in 2014 as per Jones & Baldwin (2018). Incidence of Lung Caner had shifted from a marked decline in the male population to an increased incidence in the female populace. There is also an improved survival rate of Lung Cancer among patients who have been diagnosed of the disease at different stages from 24.5% to 36.7% in 1995. This one-year survival rate has been attributed to the advancements in diagnosis and treatment (Gavin &Baldwin,2018).

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Hypothyroidism 甲状腺功能减退

Hypothyroidism is a condition that comes from your thyroid gland producing inadequate amounts of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. Common symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, sensitivity to cold, constipation, dry skin, weight gain, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, elevated cholesterol, muscle aches, tenderness, stiffness, joint pain, swelling, irregular or heavy menstrual periods in women, thinning hair, depression, impaired memory, and slowed heart rate (Mayo Clinic, 2018).

Clinical manifestations:

  • Fatigue and lethargy
  • Weight gain
  • Complaints of cold hands and feet
  • Temperature and pulse become subnormal; patient cannot tolerate cold and desires increased room temperature
  • Reduced attention span; impaired short-term memory
  • Severe constipation
  • Generalized appearance of thick, puffy skin; subcutaneous swelling in hands, feet, and eyelids
  • Thinning hair, loss of the lateral one-third of eyebrow
  • Menorrhagia or amenorrhea
  • Neurologic signs include polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, muscle aches or weakness, clumsiness, prolonged deep tendon reflexes
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia and hypercholesterolemia
  • Enlarged heart on chest x-ray
  • Increased susceptibility to all hypnotic and sedative drugs and anesthetic agents
  • Syndrome of subclinical hypothyroidism: state in which the patient is asymptomatic and the free T4 level is within the normal range; however, the TSH level is elevated, suggesting impending thyroid gland failure. Therefore, many clinicians may elect to treat this condition as if the patient were symptomatic.
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Substance Abuse, Dependence, and Addictions- Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) 药物滥用, 依赖, 成瘾

Incidence and prevalence

As according to Raynor and Pope (2016), “it is estimated that more than 8 million (an estimated 12%) children in America lived with at least one parent who was dependent on or abused alcohol or illicit drugs”, “according to the results from the 2013 National survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 5.4% of pregnant women were current illicit drug users based on data averaged across 2012 and 2013”. (p. 180).

In the terms of substance abuse or dependence, the substance can be defined as a prescribed drug, an illegal drug, alcohol, or a substance used in an unintended manner to produce mood or mind-altering effect. Substance abuse may be unintentionally from initial used, but the abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive substances has become an endemic problem, and the individuals are facing not only psychological but physiological consequences.

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