Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder of attention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is typically diagnosed in children 6 to 9 years of age (Katz, 2018). Approximately, 5 to 10 % of school aged children, primarily males, have ADHD (Katz, 2018). Two to 5 percent of adults have ADHD (Katz, 2018). In the adult population the number, or ratio, of females diagnosed with ADHD is equal to males (Katz, 2018).
“Currently, there is no known neurophysiological or neurochemical basis for the disorder. Imbalances among levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine all seem to be involved” (Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2015, p. 1108). Family history, genetics, provides the strongest evidence for etiology of ADHD (Katz, 2018). Having a first-degree relative with ADHD makes an individual 5 times more likely to have ADHD (Katz, 2018). Many times ADHD goes unrecognized throughout childhood, or people with ADHD were able to compensate for their symptoms when they were young, but as their responsibilities increase their symptoms become more apparent, negatively impacting them both professionally and their personal relationships (Smith & Segal, 2017). Unlike children with ADHD, adults with ADHD typically do not have motoric hyperactivity (Katz, 2018). Adults commonly present with complaints of restlessness, edginess, difficulty relaxing, disorganization, boredom, difficulty paying attention or focusing, and difficulty completing tasks (Katz, 2018). Frustration with job and life routines are also common complaints among adults with ADHD (Dunphy et al., 2015).Continue reading “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)(尤指儿童的)注意缺陷多动障碍 (Reading & Sharing)”