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Cardiac Valve Disease 心脏瓣膜疾病

Cardiac valve disease normally occurs from valve vegetation or thickening (Ferri, 2018). Most valve damage occurs in the pulmonary valve followed by the aortic valve (Singhi & Kumar, 2015). Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of cardiac valve disease and is a major cause of heart failure in children and adults (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Rheumatic heart disease is caused by Group A streptococcal infections that are not treated or not completely treated (Nkoke, et al., 2016). Most valve disease seen in the adult population is rheumatic in etiology and could have been prevented if the underlying infection would have been treated (Moreas and Tarasoutchi, 2014). There is also a chance of congenital heart disease affecting the valves of the heart. Congenital heart disease occurs at a rate of 6-8 per 1,000 live births, with 15-20% of children having valvular involvement (Singhi & Kumar, 2015).

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