Nursing Continue Education

Pneumonia 肺炎

Incidence and prevalence of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a respiratory disorder that affects the lungs (Dela & Wunderlink, 2017). It causes difficulty in breathing since the alveoli are filled with pus that limits oxygen intake. Pneumonia has caused more deaths worldwide according to the world health organization report. It accounts for approximately 16% of children’s deaths below five years. People aged 65 years or older are also at a higher risk of contracting the disease and can easily die when attacked. Statistics indicate that pneumonia affects 5.6 million people annually in the United States. Most of the affected individuals succumb to the condition without them knowing. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate the causes, signs and symptoms, prevention, and treatment of the disorder in a bid to manage the condition.

Pneumonia is caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses (Marrie & Future Medicine Ltd, 2016). Streptococcus pneumonia is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia in the young ones followed by Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib). The common viral cause of pneumonia is referred to as the respiratory syncytial virus. The disease can be transmitted through airborne droplets The symptoms of pneumonia include shortness of breath, fatigue, diarrhea, chest pains when one coughs, lower body temperature, and shaking chills among others.

The main prevention mechanism used to control pneumonia is immunization. Children should be immunized against pneumococcus, Hib, pertussis, and measles among others. The aspect of vaccination will effectively prevent the emergence of pneumonia thus aid in lowering the child mortality rate. Treatment of the disorder is through antibiotics such as the amoxicillin dispersible tablets.

Pathophysiology of Pneumonia

As stated earlier, the disorder mostly affects the lungs thus causing difficulties in breathing. It is because the invading pathogen causes symptoms that negatively affect the immune response in the lungs. In this case, the capillaries become leaky thus enabling the protein-rich fluids to seep in the alveoli. This leads to a less functional gaseous exchange in the body thereby depriving oxygen of the patient. The concentration of carbon dioxide increase thus forcing the patient to breath faster in a bid to gain more oxygen (Notter, Finkelstein, & Holm 2014). When this action takes place, the production of mucus increases and further restrains gaseous exchange in the lungs. Leucocytes are then produced to fight the infection and further fill the alveoli with debris (Trainex Corporation, 2014). The stated process finally results in pneumonia due to the blockage of air spaces that causes difficulties in the respiratory system.

Physical assessment and examination

When a patient visits a doctor for suspected pneumonia, a physical assessment has to be done. The aspect of assessing a patient’s condition aids in the establishment of the required diagnosis that will help in treatment. Among the factors to be checked on include whether the chest pains, the oxygen level, the body temperature, breathing rate, and heart rate among other symptoms (Dela & Wunderlink, 2017). Since the signs are mostly related to chest problems, X-ray will play a pivotal role in examining the internal conditions of the patient. This will assist the doctor to describe the best medication that will correct the disorder. Again, patients have a more significant role to play in regards to telling the correct information to the physician. Better understanding between the health provider and the patient contributes to a successful assessment. Its achievement highly reduces the death rates since people will leave healthily.

Evidence-based treatment plan and patient education

The primary intervention used in the management of pneumonia is antibiotics. In choosing the best antibiotics to manage or treat the condition, practitioners have to identify the specific bacteria that caused the condition in the first place (Marrie & Future Medicine Ltd, 2016). Antibiotics such as Levofloxacin can be prescribed for the condition (Marrie & Future Medicine Ltd, 2016). In case the patient is coughing, cough medication will also be prescribed. Also, patients that complain of high fever or pain because of pneumonia can be provided with ibuprofen or aspirins to control these discomforts (Marrie & Future Medicine Ltd, 2016). Research studies indicate that quality improvement care forms the basis for proper management of pneumonia. This requires an appropriate collaboration between the patients and the physicians in a bid to manage the condition. From the research conducted by the University of Minnesota on evidence-based pneumonia quality improvement, the results indicate that the strategy of improving quality care has helped in the effective management of pneumonia (Marrie & Future Medicine Ltd, 2016). The development focuses on better timing and selection of appropriate antibodies as well as improving the pneumococcal and influenza vaccination. These aspects ensure that the treatment is made efficient thus improving the health status of individuals.

Patient education is vital as it ensures that people get to understand the emerging trends in the health sector. When people are enlightened on the preventive measures of pneumonia, they will become more sensitive thus enabling them to maintain their health (Marrie & Future Medicine Ltd, 2016). It results in a decline in the number of deaths that occur from pneumonia.

Follow up and evaluation of the treatment plan

In a bid to achieve quality improvement in the health sector, regular follow up need to be done. It can be achieved through monitoring and evaluation processes that will aid in reflecting on the performance of a given treatment. For instance, if a given antibody fails to produce the required results, intensive research must be done to obtain the anticipated antibody. Follow up can also be done by assessing the conditions of the patients to have a picture of their recovering process (Marrie & Future Medicine Ltd, 2016). The aspect will aid in determining the performance of a given medication and evaluate its effectiveness.

Preventing Flu and Pneumonia (Home Use)


Dela, C. C., & Wunderlink, R. G. (2017). Viral and Atypical Pneumonia in Adults, An Issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine. Saintt Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Marrie, T. J., & Future Medicine Ltd. (2016). Primary care management of community-acquired pneumonia. London, England: Future Medicine Ltd. (Unitec House, 2 Albert Place, London N3 1QB, UK.

Notter, R. H., Finkelstein, J. N., & Holm, B. A. (2014). Lung injury: Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and therapy. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.

Trainex Corporation. (2014). Pathophysiology of pneumonia. Garden Grove, CA: Trainex.

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