Behaviorism (Pavlov, Watson, Skinner)
- Stimulus and response is the basis for learning
- Behaviorists view learning as the product of the stimulus conditions and the responses that follow- sometimes termed the S-R model of learning.
- The environment develops the person
- Behaviorists closely observe responses and then manipulate the environment to bring about the intended change.
- Requires behavior modification and classroom management
- Positive reinforcement is used to encourage acceptable behavior
- Generated the idea of “Programmed Learning”
- Tyler (1949) introduced behavioral objectives in education
- Faculty decides on the educational experience
- Nursing education is still steeped in behaviorism today (Lockstep curriculum 锁步课程)
Behavioristic learning was the earliest pattern identified through research. Psychologists such as Skinner and Thorndike described learning as a change in behavior and used stimulus response action as an example (Bradshaw and Lowenstein, 2014). — learning is the product of the stimulus conditions and the responses that follow– the Stimulus-Responses model of learning–
Behaviorists closely observe responses and then manipulate the environment to bring about the intended change.
Bradshaw, M. J. & Lowenstein, A. J. (2014) Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions. (6th ed.)