Nursing Continue Education

Ways of Knowing 通晓之道 – Barbara Carper (1978) – Reading & Sharing

Barbara Carper (1978) “Ways of Knowing”–there are four ways that nurse understand practice situations, and they are:

  1. Empirical 实验证据的 or scientific knowledge (includes evidence-based practice) –The Science of Nursing
    • Knowledge from research and objective facts
    • Knowledge is systematically organized into general laws and theories
    • Evidenced-based practice (EBP)
  2. Personal knowledge or understanding how you would feel in the patient’s position
    • Refers to the knowledge we have of ourselves and what we have seen and experience
    • process of observation, reflection, and self-actualization
  3. Ethical knowledge or attitudes and understanding of moral decisions
    • Helps one develop our own moral code
    • Knowing what is right and wrong
    • For nurses, our personal ethics is based on our obligation to protect and respect human life
    • The “Code of Ethics for Nurses”
  4. Aesthetic knowledge or understanding the situation of the patient at the moment -The Art of Nursing
    • The ability to create new understanding of a phenomenon
  5. ***Munhall (1993) added the fifth way of knowing: unknowing or understanding that the nurse cannot know everything about the patient and must place him- or herself in a position willing to learn from the patient’s perspective.
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